Capital City: Islamabad
Pakistan(Urdu: پاکستان) is a country in South Asia. Located along the Arabian Sea, it is surrounded by Afghanistan to the west and northwest, Iran to the southwest, India to the east, and China to the northeast. It is strategically located astride the ancient trade routes of the Khyber and Bolan passes between Asia and Europe.
Pakistan is one of those few countries in the world which has every kind of geological structure. It has the sea, desert (Sindh & Punjab), green mountains (North West Provice), dry mountains (Balochistan), mountains covered with ice, rivers, rich land to cultivate (Punjab & Sindh), water resources, water falls, forests etc. The North West Frontier Province and Gilgit-Baltistan contain the mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakoram, and the Hindu Kush. Pakistan's highest point is K2, at 8,611 meters, which is the second highest peak in the world. The Punjab province is a flat, alluvial plain whose rivers eventually join the Indus River and flow south to the Arabian Sea. Sindh lies between the Thar Desert the Rann of Kutch to the east, and the Kirthar range to the west. The Balochistan Plateau is arid and surrounded by dry mountains. Pakistan experiences frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe, especially in north and west.
Mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north. Flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August). Fertile and sub humid heat in the Punjab region. Seasonal climate and daily weather 
Sacrifice of imam Hussain(R.A) - takes place on 10th of Muharam the first month of Hijera Calander(Islamic Calendar), public gathers across the country to show support to the cause of grandson of Prophet Muhammad(P.B.U.H), Seminars, rallies, procession(Matmi Jaloos), majalis etc are organized on this day.
Eid-ul-Fitr - the largest holiday of the year, it celebrates the end of the holy month of Ramadan. Food is the highlight, and if you're lucky you'll be invited into a private home for a feast. Businesses close for at least a couple days if not a week.
Eid-ul-Azha - the festival of sacrifice, commemorates Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son
Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi - Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad, varies according to Hijera calendar
Pakistan Day - March 23
Labour Day - May 1
Independence Day - August 14
Quaid-e-Azam's deathday - September 11
Quaid-e-Azam's birthday - December 25
Ramadan - the 9th and holiest month in the Islamic calendar, Muslim's fast everyday for its duration and most restaurants will be closed until the fast breaks at dusk. Nothing (including water and cigarettes) are supposed to pass through the lips from dawn to sunset. Foreigners and travelers are exempt from this, but you should still refrain from doing it in public.